Pelvic Organ Prolapse

Pelvic Organ Prolapse is the third most common pelvic floor disorder involving the descent of your bladder, urethra, small intestine, rectum, uterus and/or vagina from their normal position. This may be caused by weakness or injury to the ligament, connective tissue, and muscles of the pelvis. Common contributing factors include pregnancy, childbirth, injury, surgery, obesity, age, heavy lifting and/or straining.

Pelvic Organ Prolapse Disorders

  • Cystocele: Develops when bladder descends down & protrudes into the front wall of vagina. Patient may experience stress/urge incontinence or fullness in perineal region.
  • Uterine Prolapse: Uterus descends into vaginal canal at varying degrees – can cause vaginal pressure/discomfort & low back pain.
  • Vagina Vault Prolapse: Post hysterectomy complication where vagina drops from position into vaginal canal.
  • Rectocele: When rectum drops down & protrudes into back wall of the vagina. Rectocele can make a bowel movement difficult & contribute to constipation.
  • Enterocele: When small intestine &lining of abdominal cavity bulge downward between vagina & rectum. Typically, described as a feeling of fullness/pressure/pain in pelvis and/or pain in lower back.
  • Mixed Incontinence: A combination of stress & urge incontinence.
  • Nocturia: Frequent nighttime urination.
  • Stress Incontinence: Unintended leakage of urine from physical stress (e.g., coughing, sneezing, or lifting).
  • Urge Incontinence: Leaking urine accompanying strong feeling/urge to urinate.


  • Increased discomfort with prolonged standing, relieved by lying down.
  • Low back discomfort that worsens as day progresses.
  • Incomplete bowel or bladder emptying.
  • Urinary frequency, urgency, hesitancy, stopping & starting of urine stream, painful urination, or incomplete emptying.
  • Protrusion from posterior/anterior vaginal wall.
  • Need to reposition during bowel movement.
  • Difficulty evacuating rectum with need to use splinting technique.

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